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Child labour

There is no denying the fact the fundamental rights of the children envisages that a child must be protected by providing him/her hierarchical needs like physiological, safety, security, egoistic and self actualization need. In Un convention, it has been clearly stated that a child must be flourished and it is the duties of the parents and in this respect, the state parties should have a special look to the well beings of the children and as such they should ensure necessary funds to develop them with proper education, knowledge and other ancillaries in a systematic manner so that they should develop themselves as an ideal citizen. In this context, Child labour has been a great impediment for flourishing the prospects in a country. Due to the fact that due to poverty, the parents are compelled to send their children to work in order to maintain their family. There is no denying the fact that modern civilization has been flourishing day by day by constructing buildings, dams, and embankments and over bridges for various purposes. There is a good ground for every development works in the world for which the limitless efforts, men’s hardihood and persistent feelings are involved significantly. Indeed, all sorts of educational institutions like schools, colleges, universities and every project and offices profiles have been constructed by enormous using sufficient bricks, trees and soils. Formerly, the world was full of forests and there were uneven soils like ragged mountains and hills. In course of time, the people felt needs to enter into the world of civilization. To speak the truth, they learnt the techniques of cultivating the land, making fire and fuel for preparing their foods and ultimately, they became conversant with the useful things very convenient to them by conquering the world of science and technologies. In this momentary world many uncommon talents came out and made the world astonished by miracle discoveries and inventions. In those work, men and women are equally engaged where it is evident that a child is only a child, not a boy, not a girl.

It is evident that modern society is more often than not male dominated where women still pine away in an substandard position put side by side to men because of the social formation and stick with customarily held social values. There is, however, an escalating responsiveness that women’s position must get better as a matter of their right; and that, for national development also, mainstreaming of women in all walks of national life is essential. Bangladesh is differentiated by a very high population density (860 persons per sq. km. as of 1999), a high population growth rate (about 2.5 per cent), a very low per-capita income (about US$ 200 as of 1999), a very low adult literacy rate (32 per cent), and widespread being without a job and underemployment (one-third or more of the available labour-time in the country). About 46 per cent of the population aged 10 years and above constitute the civilian labour force. While women constitute half of the population, their labour force participation rate is only 9.9 per cent against 81.4 per cent of men. Open unemployment rate is 3.1 per cent for women against 1.1 per cent for men and underemployment rate for women workforce is even higher measure up to men. Since the mid-1970s, the Government has, in acknowledgment of the fact that women’s class must get better and that women should be implicated in nation building behavior for an orderly progress of the society, adopted policies and measures aimed at enhancing women’s status, promoting employment opportunities for them, protecting their rights. On top of these, the Constitution of Bangladesh, adopted in 1972, has guaranteed equal position to women. The Constitution of Bangladesh enshrines women’s equal status with men before law; women shall have equal rights in all spheres of state and public life, and equality of opportunity in respect of employment or office in the service of the Republic. They should not be discriminated against because they are women. In fact, the Constitution provides that special steps should be taken for the advancement of women. However, Article 29(c) states that any class of employment or office may be set aside for members of one sex on the ground that it is considered by its nature to be unsuited to members of the opposite sex. If not properly interpreted, this provision may allow scope for abuse and provide a cover for discrimination against women.

Due to the fact, the effort to develop the children by proper education is being adversely hampered. Suffice it to say that a class of people in the name of establishment, they are employing the children as child labour in different factories, offices and other places in some manner by way of offering very low wages. The world is immensely beautified by her unbounded nature where the forests and the animals, hill and mountains have been flourished by the best ecosystem with relevant ecological balances with the factors of climate and weather. In the world, as the antidotes of medicine to cure diseases, the poisonous chemicals are being used up to manufacture the same. In this connection, it is important to mention that the dreadful diseases like cancer, coronary, blood cancer and aids etc., are no longer a problem or dreadful impediment to human beings. If we look around the world, we will find that the environment is being polluted every time from water effluence when mosquitoes lay eggs on standing water of the river, ponds and pools etc. When dirty and unexploited ingredients are thrown into water, the water is polluted tremendously. In Great Britain, the various chemicals are used in different large plants and projects; consequently, acid rains occur frequently. In doing such jobs, child labour is being engaged on a large scale. Suffice it to say that various poisonous gases are being produced to a great extent by tremendous use of poisonous chemicals and burning bricks for which the world around us is being polluted to a large extent. In all these phenomena, child labour has been a great manpower to contribute to work extensively and from this day forward, we should save them by creating awareness in social life in question. The work which has been done behind civilization of the world, child labour has been employed in embryonic manner as because; the children coming from poor family have been employing themselves as child labour. The child who will be brought up with due care, they are working parallel to the adult labour. There is no denying the fact that the provisions to enlarge meticulous care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children.

We should bear in mind that, as specified in the proclamation of the Rights of the Child, “the child, by reason of his corporeal and psychological juvenile behavior, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth”,

The Convention on the Rights of the Child was accepted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989. It entered into force 2 September 1990, in accordance with article 49.

It has been highlighted that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, we should bear in mind that the peoples of the United Nations have, in the Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, it has been recognized that the United Nations has, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants on Human Rights, proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status, it has been recalled that, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has proclaimed that childhood is entitled to special care and assistance, Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children, should be afforded the necessary protection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilities within the community, it has been stated that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and sympathetic consideration. It has been stated that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity. It has been expressed that the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and globally; the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the management of Juvenile Justice

We should bear in mind that, in all countries in the world, there are children living in unusually difficult conditions and that such children need special contemplation for taking due explanation of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the fortification and harmonious development of the child. We should bear in mind the importance of international co-operation for improving the living conditions of children in every country, in particular in the developing countries, for the purposes of the present Convention, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier. States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child’s or his or her parent’s or legal guardian’s race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status. 2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that the child is protected against all forms of discrimination or chastisement on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child’s parents, legal guardians, or family members. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration. It has been stated the States Parties embark on to ensure the child such protection and care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take all appropriate legislative and administrative measures.

It has been stated the states Parties should ensure that the institutions, services and facilities responsible for the care or protection of children shall conform with the standards established by competent authorities, particularly in the areas of safety, health, in the number and suitability of their staff, as well as competent supervision. It has been stated the States Parties shall undertake all appropriate legislative, managerial and other measures for the implementation of the rights recognized in the present Convention. With regard to economic, social and cultural rights, States Parties shall undertake such measures to the maximum extent of their available resources and, where needed, within the framework of international co-operation. It has been stated the States Parties shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention.

It has been avowed the child shall be listed immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to get hold of a nationality and. as far as possible, and the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents. It has been stated in UN charter that the States Parties should ensure the implementation of these rights according to their national law and their obligations under the relevant global instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be stateless. It has been stated the states Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her uniqueness, including nationality, name and family kindred as recognized by law without unlawful intervention. The children who are found begging need to be sorted out and they should be positioned in a place which is suitable for their development. The social authorities and other welfare organization should come forward to settle them in a systematic manner. Other wise the hopes and aspiration would be nipped in the bud.

Source by Kh. Atiar Rahman

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